The DGA of DirCrypt


These are just unpolished notes. The content likely lacks clarity and structure; and the results might not be adequately verified and/or incomplete.


DirCrypt is an inactive Ransomware that uses a Domain Generation Algorithm (DGA) for its callback call. Because I couldn`t find the DGA algorithm online, I decided to reverse engineer this sample from I list more samples that use the DGA in section Sample on

The DGA of DirCrypt uses a hardcoded seed located in the resource section of the executable. For the examined sample, the seed is labeled with the integer identifier 0x7D:

load seed from resource section

For my sample, the value of resource identifier 0x7D was 0xF2113C2A:

seed value

The malware passes the seed and the number of distinct domains it wants to generate to a subroutine I called spawn_6_callback_threads:

calls spawning

The subroutine creates six callback threads - all getting a pointer to the same structure with seed and number of domains. The routine will wait for all six threads to finish before it returns:

spawning 6 threads

The callback routine callback_loop creates new domains with the following routine “the_dga”. The counter dga_nr_of_domains (initialized to 30) is decreased after a new domain is generated. The thread returns when a command-and-control callback is successful or the counter reaches zero. Here is the disassembly of the DGA:

UPX0:0040183B the_dga         proc near               
UPX0:0040183B seed            = dword ptr  4
UPX0:0040183B domain          = dword ptr  8
UPX0:0040183B                 push    ebx
UPX0:0040183C                 push    esi
UPX0:0040183D                 push    edi
UPX0:0040183E                 push    20
UPX0:00401840                 push    8
UPX0:00401842                 lea     eax, [esp+14h+seed]
UPX0:00401846                 push    eax
UPX0:00401847                 call    rand_int
UPX0:0040184C                 mov     ebx, [esp+0Ch+domain]
UPX0:00401850                 mov     edi, eax
UPX0:00401852                 xor     esi, esi
UPX0:00401854                 test    edi, edi
UPX0:00401856                 jbe     short loc_40186E
UPX0:00401858 loc_401858:                            
UPX0:00401858                 push    'z'
UPX0:0040185A                 push    'a'
UPX0:0040185C                 lea     eax, [esp+14h+seed]
UPX0:00401860                 push    eax
UPX0:00401861                 call    rand_int
UPX0:00401866                 mov     [esi+ebx], al
UPX0:00401869                 inc     esi
UPX0:0040186A                 cmp     esi, edi
UPX0:0040186C                 jb      short loc_401858
UPX0:0040186E loc_40186E:                           
UPX0:0040186E                 push    offset a_com    ; ".com"
UPX0:00401873                 add     edi, ebx
UPX0:00401875                 push    edi
UPX0:00401876                 call    strcpy
UPX0:0040187B                 mov     eax, [esp+0Ch+seed]
UPX0:0040187F                 pop     edi
UPX0:00401880                 pop     esi
UPX0:00401881                 pop     ebx
UPX0:00401882                 retn    8
UPX0:00401882 the_dga         endp

with rand_int being:

UPX0:00404E9E rand_int        proc near               
UPX0:00404E9E seed            = dword ptr  4
UPX0:00404E9E lower           = dword ptr  8
UPX0:00404E9E upper           = dword ptr  0Ch
UPX0:00404E9E                 mov     eax, [esp+upper]
UPX0:00404EA2                 sub     eax, [esp+lower]
UPX0:00404EA6                 push    eax             ; span
UPX0:00404EA7                 push    [esp+4+seed]
UPX0:00404EAB                 call    rand_mod
UPX0:00404EB0                 add     eax, [esp+lower]
UPX0:00404EB4                 retn    0Ch
UPX0:00404EB4 rand_int        endp

and rand_mod being a standard linear congruential generator:

UPX0:00404E6B rand_mod        proc near               
UPX0:00404E6B seed            = dword ptr  4
UPX0:00404E6B span            = dword ptr  8
UPX0:00404E6B                 mov     ecx, [esp+seed]
UPX0:00404E6F                 mov     eax, [ecx]
UPX0:00404E71                 xor     edx, edx
UPX0:00404E73                 push    esi
UPX0:00404E74                 mov     esi, 127773
UPX0:00404E79                 div     esi
UPX0:00404E7B                 pop     esi
UPX0:00404E7C                 imul    eax, 2836
UPX0:00404E82                 imul    edx, 16807
UPX0:00404E88                 sub     edx, eax
UPX0:00404E8A                 mov     eax, [esp+span]
UPX0:00404E8E                 mov     [ecx], edx
UPX0:00404E90                 lea     ecx, [eax+1]
UPX0:00404E93                 mov     eax, edx
UPX0:00404E95                 xor     edx, edx
UPX0:00404E97                 div     ecx
UPX0:00404E99                 mov     eax, edx
UPX0:00404E9B                 retn    8
UPX0:00404E9B rand_mod        endp

As mentioned above, all six threads access — inside a critical section — the same seed and dga_nr_of_domains. Therefore, at most 30 different domains are created. The following Python code generates the 30 domains of the DGA for a given seed:

import argparse

class RandInt:

    def __init__(self, seed): 
        self.seed = seed

    def rand_int_modulus(self, modulus):
        ix = self.seed                
        ix = 16807*(ix % 127773) - 2836*(ix / 127773) & 0xFFFFFFFF        
        self.seed = ix
        return ix % modulus 

def get_domains(seed, nr):
    r = RandInt(seed)
    for i in range(nr):
        domain_len = r.rand_int_modulus(12+1) + 8
        domain = ""
        for i in range(domain_len):
            char = chr(ord('a') + r.rand_int_modulus(25+1))
            domain += char
        domain += ".com"
        yield domain

if __name__=="__main__":
    parser = argparse.ArgumentParser(description="generate Dircrypt domains")
    parser.add_argument("seed", help="seed as hex")
    args = parser.parse_args()
    for domain in get_domains(int(args.seed, 16), 30):

For example:

$ python f2113c2a

The following table summarizes the properties of the DGA:

property value
seed hardcoded in resource section of executable
domains per seed 30
tested domains all
sequence one after another, but DNS queries can occur out of order because six concurrent threads make callback calls
wait time between domains none
top level domain .com for all observed seeds
second level characters lower case letters, picked uniformly at random
second level domain length 8 to 20 characters

Samples on

I sifted through all samples on where at least one of the virus scanners identified the sample as “DirCrypt”. I then brute forced the seed that leads to the observed domains. Because the callbacks run in six concurrent threads, the domains sometimes appear out of order. Also, some of the DirCrypt samples use an additional hardcoded domain:, or (this domain is generated by the DGA, just not with the hardcoded seed).

The following table lists the md5 hash of the sample (linked to the analysis on, the submission date to, the used seed, and any additional domains that are not covered by the DGA’s seed. The periodicity of the pseudo random number generator is 232/2 or half the number range; therefore, there are two seeds for each sequence of domains.

seed md5 date not covered
18a62b7a, 98a62b79 4bb6c6c3f1ad7c2fb6096f6156c1df9b 10. Jul. 2013
18a62b7a, 98a62b79 3c03f0478ed6b0e81397b8e93cd4be90 29. Jul. 2013  
1fcbef63, 9fcbef62 339901b416c580d4d6c7fae4a088d2e4 28. Aug. 2013
18a62b7a, 98a62b79 d224637a6b6e3001753d9922e749d00d 06. Sep. 2013  
1a11b7cd, 9a11b7cc c1c117a8fbcd87b1c52a7c1c8e4bd2c9 30. Sep. 2013  
72113c2b, f2113c2a dd69a49ab475dafc7246dee9f0f4c877 06. Oct. 2013  
72113c2b, f2113c2a 42b77df04c7c34294c0e9459550cde9b 06. Oct. 2013  
72113c2b, f2113c2a fa126a680351484beb450053e7ccccd0 06. Oct. 2013  
72113c2b, f2113c2a e53d4e64930a40a12cd994f2779a11e9 07. Oct. 2013  
1a11b7cd, 9a11b7cc 7d978608d8fbaf3b756d692fff243450 15. Oct. 2013  
741fd6e2, f41fd6e1 70b86fdf69b8059ed4bf12e2a7707ae6 23. Oct. 2013  
72113c2b, f2113c2a 70d0a1b577dde513a0dfae09722d3ddd 25. Oct. 2013  
6c75a989, ec75a988 0a807e0a2d29f19c95b313d018e1c2bd 16. Nov. 2013  
72113c2b, f2113c2a a88cfaa2e408df1245d74d0b50531976 02. Dec. 2013  
72113c2b, f2113c2a 1186590b731d17206c63aadbe5a0484a 02. Dec. 2013  
78731d07, f8731d06 0e5e8f6edd2c1496614bb6a71ba3f256 10. Dec. 2013 6522e630, e522e62f
6c75a989, ec75a988 b2752b6151b6fd8342e68b9bd5aa632b 11. Dec. 2013  
6e46566, 86e46565 f99f10c3a02eff983e99216cd5f54ce9 31. Dec. 2013  
6c75a989, ec75a988 f7b0ae2f4d669e3705b60fe20a5bbf7a 08. Jan. 2014  
1fcbef63, 9fcbef62 ee3c8b0bbea638e10eda11fa042069e0 11. Jan. 2014
52ce8a67, d2ce8a66 80b356b9203d7e494ccc795d15999133 19. Apr. 2014  
22a47ee8, a2a47ee7 83f94b0697e3d69c3b219191984620d6 22. Apr. 2014  
52ce8a67, d2ce8a66 bbc1d7261ee18363aa2677708abeb5a0 25. Apr. 2014  
52ce8a67, d2ce8a66 08956c46e09c2375a6ee64313adc9d4a 26. Apr. 2014  
52ce8a67, d2ce8a66 ec92487de0c66ceac950daff102c5576 03. May. 2014  
52ce8a67, d2ce8a66 b9e7b880bd095d11c16d6adc40eaff3d 05. May. 2014  
4caa1fc5, ccaa1fc4 1451cf7b82c70be7ea6744b69acc9960 29. May. 2014  
4caa1fc5, ccaa1fc4 bc918d15033b2f97bc0ba745949577d2 29. May. 2014  
52ce8a67, d2ce8a66 0d24562e7e2ae008b757c471976bd2f6 29. May. 2014  
52ce8a67, d2ce8a66 245d39fad0e9c31dfac810ae413e4a96 30. May. 2014  
52ce8a67, d2ce8a66 44bc29f11d907a33eca52cb1c872f9d6 30. May. 2014  
52ce8a67, d2ce8a66 5af46d0edfffb0089dd1c1c9945e1170 30. May. 2014  
52ce8a67, d2ce8a66 ba682f257c4acf0d706e4ed29cabf476 20. Jul. 2014  

Most samples use the seed 52ce8a67 / d2ce8a66 (10 samples) and 72113c2b / f2113c2a (7 samples). The following table summarizes the seeds that I was able to identify, the first five generated domains, and the number of samples on

seed first 5 domains found hashes
6e46566, 86e46565,,,, 1
72113c2b, f2113c2a,,,, 7
741fd6e2, f41fd6e1,,,, 1
1a11b7cd, 9a11b7cc,,,, 2
18a62b7a, 98a62b79,,,, 3
4caa1fc5, ccaa1fc4,,,, 2
1fcbef63, 9fcbef62,,,, 2
78731d07, f8731d06,,,, 1
52ce8a67, d2ce8a66,,,, 10
22a47ee8, a2a47ee7,,,, 1
6c75a989, ec75a988,,,, 3


The DGA in this blog post has been implemented by the DGArchive  project.

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